When insect species establish outside of their natural distribution range they are called non-native or exotic.
These non-native insects often remain undetected until populations are well established and become invasive, threatening native species, ecosystems, habitats, human health and many sectors of the economy such as agriculture, forestry and tourism.
One reason why these non-native insects can become invasive is the lack of natural enemies that limit their population growth and spread in the invaded area. Classical biological control, or biocontrol, is the use of living organisms such as insects, mites or fungal pathogens to control pest populations. It levels the playing-field by reintroducing some of the specialist natural enemies that help control the invasive species in its native range. The aim is not to eradicate the invasive insect, but to bring its density below an appropriate ecological or economic threshold.
Biocontrol is an environmentally friendly, cost-effective and sustainable way of managing invasive species and has been used effectively for more than 100 years.
What we offer
CABI has over 60 years’ experience of working on the biological control of invasive insects.
Our team of highly experienced staff works with customers to develop scientifically sound biological control solutions based on thorough research. We advance the science of biological arthropod biological control by carrying out in-depth studies, often in collaboration with universities or other research organisations.
For example, the identification of new biological control agents involves a range of activities including surveys of natural enemies in the pest’s native range, host range studies, and climate simulation models.
Any organism intended for the control of a non-native invasive insect then undergoes an extensive series of tests to determine its environmental safety before considering its release.
In addition, we are investigating the adaptation of native natural enemies of exotic pests in the invaded range and their potential for augmentative biological control (periodical releases of mass reared natural enemies into short-term crops). We are also actively involved in the development of new guidelines on the regulation of biological control.
The team and key contact
The team working at CABI in Switzerland is led by Dr Tim Haye and includes research scientists and temporary research assistants, including students from Canadian universities.
A number of international MSc and PhD students are co-supervised by CABI staff and conduct part of their research at CABI’s Swiss centre. This is an important component of CABI’s work and adds both a breadth and depth to the quality of our scientific research.
We also work closely with the CABI-MoA Joint Laboratory in China, tackling insect pests of Asian origin.
We are currently investigating potential biocontrol agents for seven invasive insects in Canada and Europe. Project highlights include:
- Continuous releases of the biological control agent Diadromus pulchellus, a wasp species, have been made against the invasive leek moth, Acrolepiopsis assectella, in Canada since 2010. First results suggest that immediate parasitism levels of almost 50% can be achieved when sufficient numbers of the biological control agent are released.
- Since 2010, continuous releases of the wasp species, Tetrastichus setifer, have been made against the lily leaf beetle, Lilioceris lilii, across Canada. The parasitoid has established in Ontario and parasitism at release sites is high. Successful releases of the wasp, Peristenus digoneutis, have been made against Lygus plant bugs in Ontario, Canada.
- In spring 2017 a petition for the redistribution of Trichomalus perfectus as a classical biological control agent for cabbage seedpod weevil, Ceutorhynchus obstrictus, in Western Canada was submitted to the Candian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).
The western corn rootworm is a major invasive maize pest in North America and Europe. The phase-out of certain pesticides means control options are increasingly limited. New technologies are being researched in collaboration with five French partners. Using field surveys and candidate gene searches through database-mining, we are investigating bacterial proteins with insecticidal effects. Promising strains are then screened in vitro to develop biopesticidial or biotechnological control options.
The western corn rootworm is a destructive pest of maize. Most damage is caused by larvae feeding on the roots, which becomes apparent when plants lodge. Drawing on some 15 yearS experience as a research and development partner on corn rootworms, CABI has become a key service provider for field surveys, laboratory and field research on basic ecology and management of the pest, rearing including supplying eggs for research, and writing support.
The diamondback moth is a global pest. Canadian farmers often have use chemicals to protect their crops. This is costly and the pest is becoming immune, meaning additional control options are needed. In Europe, Asia and Africa, Diadromus collaris, is a major parasitoid of the moth. It has been introduced to several countries or regions and has established as a successful biocontrol. CABI is therefore carrying out life table studies in Europe to determine if its introduction is a viable strategy.